Summary: 

  • Alaska, West Virginia, and Colorado had the highest growth in alternative-energy vehicles over the past 5 years, roughly tripling their EV and hybrid market share
  • States with the lowest growth in EV and hybrid share include Hawaii, Oregon, Vermont, Washington, and California
  • Colorado’s large 15.1 percent jump in EV and hybrid share make it the best state for improved miles per gallon over the past 5 years, rising from 23.6 MPG to 27.2 MPG
  • Overall 5-year EV and hybrid market share growth rate jumped from 33.3 percent in 2022 to 85.3 percent in 2023

The US market share for electric and hybrid vehicles grew 85.3 percent between 2018 and 2023. That’s almost three times the rate it grew between 2017 and 2022, confirming a massive uptick in hybrid and EV sales in just the past year, according to a new study by iSeeCars.com. For individual states, the changes in market share growth over the past 5 years range from a high of 272.1 percent in Alaska to just 43.7 percent in Hawaii.

iSeeCars analyzed over 20 million 1- to 5-year-old used cars on the road in 2018 and 2023 to determine the share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles in the US. 

“Several states you wouldn't associate with hybrid and electric vehicles saw the most growth over the past 5 years, including Alaska, West Virginia, Louisiana, Wyoming, Arkansas, and North Dakota,” said Karl Brauer, iSeeCars.com Executive Analyst. “Then you have Washington, California, and Oregon, three states most people would associate with environmental activism that ranked 45th, 46th, and 49th out of 50 in hybrid and electric vehicle market share growth.”

The 10 Best States for (Still Very Low) EV and Hybrid Market Share

Despite substantial increases over the past year, half of the top 10 states still have less than 3 percent market share for hybrid and electric vehicles, suggesting there is plenty of room for more growth.

“You look at the market share for states like Louisiana or North Dakota and realize it doesn’t take much growth in alternative fuel vehicle sales to reflect large jumps in overall share,” said Brauer. 

US States With Highest Growth in Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Share - iSeeCars Study
Rank (2023) State 5 Year % Change in Alternative Fuel Share (2018-2023) % Share Alternative Fuel 2023 Rank (2022) 5 Year % Change in Alternative Fuel Share (2017-2022)
1 Alaska 272.1% 3.8% 3 102.2%
2 West Virginia 200.9% 2.0% 16 46.9%
3 Colorado 184.9% 6.1% 11 60.1%
4 New Jersey 169.4% 3.5% 5 81.6%
5 Louisiana 152.9% 1.5% 9 60.9%
6 Wyoming 150.9% 2.0% 2 131.2%
7 Arkansas 148.5% 2.2% 4 94.4%
8 North Dakota 140.8% 1.9% 38 24.9%
9 Virginia 126.1% 5.3% 21 45.6%
10 Maryland 123.8% 4.9% 7 68.3%
National Average 85.3% 4.1% 33.3%

The 10 Worst States for EV and Hybrid Market Share: Surprisingly Little Green Growth in Traditionally Green States

Hawaii is the lowest-growth state in hybrid and electric vehicle market share, which isn’t too surprising given the state’s high cost for these models and for all vehicles. But seeing Oregon as the second lowest, with Washington and California among the bottom 10, is surprising.

“California, Washington, and Oregon are the top three states in terms of alternative fuel vehicle share,” said Brauer. “But they are also among the lowest in raising hybrid and electric vehicle share over the past 5 years, suggesting there may be a market threshold for alternative fuel vehicle share, above which it gets much more difficult to grow.”

US States With Least Growth in Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Share - iSeeCars Study
Rank (2023) State 5 Year % Change in Alternative Fuel Share (2018-2023) % Share Alternative Fuel 2023 Rank (2022) 5 Year % Change in Alternative Fuel Share (2017-2022)
50 Hawaii 43.7% 5.2% 34 30.3%
49 Oregon 47.8% 6.7% 49 2.9%
48 New Mexico 53.1% 3.3% 42 17.3%
47 Vermont 53.1% 3.7% 23 44.3%
46 California 63.5% 10.1% 32 35.0%
45 Washington 63.6% 8.1% 47 13.7%
44 South Carolina 64.1% 2.4% 50 2.3%
43 Kansas 65.3% 3.2% 43 16.9%
42 Michigan 67.2% 2.4% 31 35.7%
41 Georgia 70.0% 3.4% 48 12.0%
National Average 85.3% 4.1% 33.3%

The Top 10 States With the Highest MPG Improvement: How EV and Hybrid Market Share Raises Average MPG

Looking at the 10 states with the highest growth in MPG, six of them have above average market share for hybrid and electric vehicles. These include Colorado, California, Virginia, Nevada, Maryland, and Arizona. 

“The goal of alternative fuel vehicles, including hybrids and electric cars, is to reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions,” said Brauer. “We can see the impact of these vehicles in states with rising MPG figures over the past 5 years.”

US States With Most Improvement in Average MPG - iSeeCars Study
Rank State % Change 2018-2023 Avg MPG 2018 Avg MPG 2023 % Share Alternative Fuel 2023
1 Colorado 15.1% 23.6 27.2 6.1%
2 California 12.7% 27.6 31.1 10.1%
3 Oklahoma 11.7% 22.8 25.5 2.4%
4 Alaska 10.9% 21.8 24.2 3.8%
5 Virginia 10.6% 24.5 27.1 5.3%
6 Nevada 9.5% 25.1 27.5 5.7%
7 Texas 9.2% 23.6 25.7 3.3%
8 Wyoming 8.9% 20.7 22.5 2.0%
9 Maryland 8.8% 24.9 27.1 4.9%
10 Arizona 8.6% 25.1 27.2 5.2%
National Average 7.9% 24.4 26.3 4.1%

The Top 10 States With the Lowest MPG Improvement

In contrast to states leading in MPG growth, nine of the 10 states with the lowest growth in MPG figures are also below the national average in hybrid and electric vehicle market share. 
US States With Least Improvement in Average MPG - iSeeCars Study
Rank State % Change 2018-2023 Avg MPG 2018 Avg MPG 2023 % Share Alternative Fuel 2023
50 Hawaii 4.3% 27.2 28.4 5.2%
49 Wisconsin 4.6% 23.3 24.4 2.9%
48 Rhode Island 4.8% 24.6 25.8 3.0%
47 South Carolina 5.0% 23.8 25.0 2.4%
46 Kansas 5.2% 23.6 24.8 3.2%
45 Pennsylvania 5.2% 24.3 25.6 3.0%
44 Connecticut 5.3% 24.7 26.0 3.3%
43 Michigan 5.4% 22.9 24.2 2.4%
42 New Hampshire 5.4% 24.1 25.4 2.9%
41 Alabama 5.5% 23.7 25.0 2.3%
National Average 7.9% 24.4 26.3 4.1%
Only Hawaii is above the national average market share for alternative fuel vehicles in this group. And Hawaii’s state average of 28.4 MPG is the second highest in the country, reflecting the relatively high share of alternative fuel vehicles in the 50th state.

“But Hawaii is also ranked 50th in EV and hybrid market share growth, suggesting its residents’ desire for these vehicles has stalled,” said Brauer. “This pattern is similar to what we’re seeing in other states, again suggesting increased resistance to alternative fuel vehicles once a certain threshold is reached. Growing market share for these alternative fuel models from zero to 5 or 6 percent appears to be much easier than growing their share from 6 to 12 percent. This is concerning given the current administration’s goal of getting EVs and plug-in hybrids to 67 percent of new car market share in the next 10 years.”

Ranking of US Metro Areas by Growth

The top-ranked US metro area for 5-year growth in alternative fuel vehicles is Lake Charles, LA, with a 329.3 percent increase. Growth in all of the top five metro areas increased by at least three times the national average (85.3 percent). Four of these were in states that also had the highest growth rate – with Duluth, MN-Superior, WI metro area the one exception. 

The lowest 5-year growth was in Rapid City, SD. It stands out as the lone metro area that had a smaller alternative fuel vehicle share, with a 4.5 percent decrease from 2018 to 2023.

US Metro Areas’ Growth in Electric Vehicle/Hybrid Share – iSeeCars Study
Rank Metro Area 5 Year % Change in Alternative Fuel Share (2018-2023) % Share Alternative Fuel 2023
1 Lake Charles, LA 329.3% 1.5%
2 Duluth, MN-Superior, WI 287.0% 1.8%
3 Lafayette, LA 282.9% 1.4%
4 Anchorage, AK 279.0% 4.1%
5 Clarksburg-Weston, WV 268.2% 2.0%
6 Grand Junction-Montrose, CO 242.9% 3.3%
7 Victoria, TX 231.2% 2.2%
8 Bluefield-Beckley-Oak Hill, WV 221.5% 1.7%
9 Idaho Falls-Pocatello, ID 212.3% 3.3%
10 Santa Barbara-San Luis Obispo, CA 211.6% 12.9%
11 Rochester-Austin, MN-Mason City, IA 210.5% 3.4%
12 Biloxi-Gulfport, MS 206.7% 2.5%
13 Syracuse, NY 202.9% 2.1%
14 Denver, CO 185.0% 6.6%
15 Hattiesburg-Laurel, MS 183.5% 1.7%
16 Richmond-Petersburg, VA 177.1% 4.8%
17 Colorado Springs-Pueblo, CO 175.4% 4.6%
18 New Orleans, LA 174.3% 1.9%
19 Pittsburgh, PA 168.9% 3.0%
20 Johnstown-Altoona, PA 167.2% 2.3%
21 Charleston-Huntington, WV 163.1% 1.7%
22 Reno, NV 157.9% 5.4%
23 Jackson, TN 156.2% 1.6%
24 Ft Smith-Springdale, AR 155.9% 2.4%
25 Fargo-Valley City, ND 150.0% 2.0%
26 Lafayette, IN 148.2% 4.8%
27 Butte-Bozeman, MT 148.0% 3.3%
28 Bangor, ME 147.5% 2.0%
29 Minot-Bismarck-Dickinson, ND 145.0% 1.4%
30 Baltimore, MD 141.1% 4.6%
31 Sioux Falls(Mitchell), SD 139.3% 1.8%
32 Bowling Green, KY 135.9% 2.5%
33 Odessa-Midland, TX 134.2% 1.3%
34 Davenport,IA-Rock Island-Moline,IL 132.5% 2.9%
35 Mankato, MN 131.8% 2.5%
36 New York, NY 131.0% 3.1%
37 Yakima-Pasco-Richland-Kennewick, WA 130.7% 3.8%
38 Paducah, KY-Harrisburg, IL 127.8% 2.1%
39 Rockford, IL 127.4% 2.8%
40 Wilmington, NC 125.7% 3.1%
41 Buffalo, NY 125.2% 2.2%
42 Cedar Rapids-Waterloo-Iowa City, IA 125.0% 3.2%
43 Lubbock, TX 123.1% 1.8%
44 Harrisonburg, VA 123.0% 4.3%
45 Philadelphia, PA 123.0% 3.7%
46 Lexington, KY 122.8% 2.6%
47 Boston, MA-Manchester, NH 122.7% 4.0%
48 Memphis, TN 122.3% 2.5%
49 St. Louis, MO 121.2% 2.5%
50 Charlotte, NC 121.1% 3.7%
51 Little Rock-Pine Bluff, AR 119.7% 1.9%
52 Montgomery (Selma), AL 119.6% 1.8%
53 Traverse City-Cadillac, MI 118.9% 1.5%
54 Evansville, IN 118.7% 2.4%
55 Dallas-Ft. Worth, TX 118.1% 3.9%
56 Utica, NY 117.0% 2.1%
57 El Paso, TX 116.7% 2.0%
58 Grand Rapids-Kalamazoo, MI 115.8% 3.2%
59 Louisville, KY 115.2% 3.3%
60 South Bend-Elkhart, IN 114.6% 3.0%
61 Springfield, MO 114.6% 2.9%
62 Lima, OH 114.1% 2.5%
63 Harrisburg-Lancaster-York, PA 113.9% 3.6%
64 Rochester, NY 112.1% 2.8%
65 West Palm Beach-Ft. Pierce, FL 111.9% 4.5%
66 Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 111.8% 1.1%
67 Twin Falls, ID 111.3% 2.9%
68 Missoula, MT 110.6% 3.2%
69 Providence, RI-New Bedford, MA 110.1% 2.8%
70 Las Vegas, NV 110.1% 5.9%
71 Lincoln & Hastings-Kearney, NE 109.8% 3.2%
72 Boise, ID 108.2% 4.9%
73 Bend, OR 108.1% 5.1%
74 Chicago, IL 108.0% 4.8%
75 Terre Haute, IN 108.0% 2.3%
76 Washington, DC (Hagerstown, MD) 107.5% 6.1%
77 Erie, PA 106.1% 1.8%
78 Harlingen-Weslaco-McAllen, TX 106.1% 1.6%
79 Baton Rouge, LA 105.7% 1.6%
80 Binghamton, NY 105.2% 2.5%
81 Charlottesville, VA 104.4% 5.8%
82 Houston, TX 104.2% 3.4%
83 Tri-Cities, TN-VA 103.9% 2.1%
84 Medford-Klamath Falls, OR 103.6% 4.6%
85 Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 103.3% 2.8%
86 Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL 102.7% 3.2%
87 Quincy, IL-Hannibal, MO-Keokuk, IA 102.5% 2.3%
88 Watertown, NY 102.1% 1.7%
89 Tulsa, OK 100.9% 2.3%
90 Omaha, NE 100.1% 2.9%
91 Oklahoma City, OK 100.0% 2.6%
92 Roanoke-Lynchburg, VA 99.9% 2.1%
93 Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN 99.8% 4.2%
94 Hartford & New Haven, CT 99.5% 3.3%
95 Green Bay-Appleton, WI 98.9% 2.1%
96 Birmingham, AL 98.5% 2.7%
97 Portland-Auburn, ME 97.2% 3.5%
98 Indianapolis, IN 94.8% 3.5%
99 Wilkes Barre-Scranton, PA 93.6% 2.1%
100 Knoxville, TN 93.4% 2.6%
101 Salisbury, MD 93.0% 2.5%
102 Salt Lake City, UT 92.1% 5.2%
103 Youngstown, OH 89.9% 1.3%
104 Cincinnati, OH 89.7% 3.5%
105 Waco-Temple-Bryan, TX 89.0% 2.1%
106 Nashville, TN 88.6% 3.5%
107 Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News,VA 88.1% 3.2%
108 Wichita-Hutchinson, KS 86.6% 2.7%
109 Greensboro-Winston Salem, NC 85.8% 3.1%
110 Billings, MT 85.6% 1.9%
National Average 85.3% 4.1%
111 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA 84.5% 15.2%
112 Toledo, OH 84.1% 2.3%
113 Madison, WI 84.1% 4.3%
114 Orlando-Daytona Beach, FL 83.8% 3.7%
115 Joplin, MO-Pittsburg, KS 83.2% 2.2%
116 Phoenix, AZ 83.1% 5.3%
117 Columbus, OH 82.9% 3.3%
118 Chattanooga, TN 82.4% 2.5%
119 Monterey-Salinas, CA 81.5% 8.7%
120 Shreveport, LA 81.5% 1.2%
121 San Antonio, TX 79.8% 2.9%
122 Yuma, AZ-El Centro, CA 79.7% 2.9%
123 Tallahassee, FL-Thomasville, GA 79.5% 2.6%
124 Peoria-Bloomington, IL 78.6% 3.6%
125 Abilene-Sweetwater, TX 78.4% 1.4%
126 Columbus-Tupelo-West Point, MS 77.3% 1.6%
127 Corpus Christi, TX 76.7% 1.4%
128 Amarillo, TX 75.8% 1.9%
129 Kansas City, MO 75.7% 3.8%
130 Spokane, WA 75.5% 3.6%
131 Jackson, MS 74.6% 1.5%
132 Florence-Myrtle Beach, SC 73.4% 1.8%
133 Tampa-St Petersburg (Sarasota), FL 72.6% 3.7%
134 Champaign & Springfield-Decatur,IL 72.5% 2.8%
135 Raleigh-Durham (Fayetteville), NC 72.4% 4.1%
136 Cleveland-Akron (Canton), OH 71.6% 2.5%
137 Ft. Myers-Naples, FL 70.9% 3.3%
138 Topeka, KS 70.8% 2.5%
139 Charleston, SC 70.7% 2.7%
140 Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto, CA 70.3% 8.6%
141 Jacksonville, FL 69.9% 2.8%
142 Dayton, OH 69.9% 2.7%
143 Palm Springs, CA 69.8% 7.4%
144 Greenville-New Bern-Washington, NC 69.6% 2.1%
145 Austin, TX 69.6% 4.6%
146 Wausau-Rhinelander, WI 69.1% 2.0%
147 La Crosse-Eau Claire, WI 68.7% 2.7%
148 Springfield-Holyoke, MA 68.5% 3.3%
149 Seattle-Tacoma, WA 67.9% 9.8%
150 Atlanta, GA 67.7% 3.8%
151 Albany, GA 67.4% 1.3%
152 Sherman, TX-Ada, OK 65.3% 1.6%
153 Savannah, GA 64.1% 2.2%
154 Dothan, AL 63.4% 1.7%
155 Fresno-Visalia, CA 63.3% 5.1%
156 Detroit, MI 62.7% 2.7%
157 Huntsville-Decatur (Florence), AL 61.1% 2.3%
158 Augusta, GA 60.9% 2.0%
159 Tucson (Sierra Vista), AZ 60.2% 4.3%
160 Milwaukee, WI 57.5% 3.1%
161 Greenville-Spartanburg, SC 56.2% 2.7%
162 Portland, OR 56.2% 7.4%
163 San Diego, CA 55.9% 9.8%
164 Panama City, FL 55.0% 2.4%
165 Columbus, GA 54.3% 2.3%
166 Des Moines-Ames, IA 54.2% 2.4%
167 Los Angeles, CA 54.2% 9.6%
168 Macon, GA 52.6% 2.0%
169 Chico-Redding, CA 51.4% 5.7%
170 Columbia-Jefferson City, MO 50.8% 3.6%
171 Bakersfield, CA 49.3% 5.6%
172 Albuquerque-Santa Fe, NM 47.6% 3.3%
173 Honolulu, HI 46.6% 5.3%
174 Ft. Wayne, IN 46.1% 2.8%
175 Columbia, SC 44.2% 2.2%
176 Flint-Saginaw-Bay City, MI 43.4% 1.2%
177 Mobile, AL-Pensacola, FL 43.2% 2.2%
178 Gainesville, FL 40.3% 3.0%
179 Tyler-Longview(Nacogdoches), TX 40.3% 1.4%
180 Eugene, OR 36.6% 6.5%
181 Wichita Falls, TX & Lawton, OK 35.3% 1.7%
182 Burlington, VT-Plattsburgh, NY 33.0% 3.4%
183 Elmira, NY 32.7% 1.3%
184 Lansing, MI 22.5% 2.0%
185 Sioux City, IA 8.5% 1.1%
186 Eureka, CA 1.2% 7.8%
187 Rapid City, SD -4.2% 1.5%

Methodology

iSeeCars analyzed over 20 million 1- to 5-year-old used cars on the road from June 2017 to May 2018 and June 2022 to May 2023. The share of hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and electric vehicles was calculated in each period for each U.S. state. The percentage change in share of alternative fuel vehicles from 2018 to 2023 was then used to rank states. The average MPG in each state was also calculated and compared across each period, both including and excluding alternative fuel vehicles.

About iSeeCars.com

iSeeCars.com is a data-driven car search and research company that helps shoppers find the best car deals by providing key insights and valuable resources, including the iSeeCars VIN Check report and Best Cars Rankings. iSeeCars has saved users over $410 million so far by applying big data analytics powered by over 25 billion (and growing) data points and using proprietary algorithms to objectively analyze, score and rank millions of new cars and used cars.