Highlights:

  • The national average is one EV charger for every 1,848 U.S. residents
  • San Francisco is the most EV-friendly city in the U.S. and Milwaukee is the least EV friendly
  • Vermont is the most EV-friendly state, while Mississippi is the least EV friendly
  • The most improved city for EV friendliness is Hartford, CT, and the least improved is Oklahoma City
  • The most improved state for EV friendliness is Connecticut, while the least improved is Alaska

Electric vehicle charging infrastructure remains a limiting factor in the transition from internal combustion engines to electrified vehicles. Range and charging anxiety are among the biggest challenges for existing EV owners, and may be the primary concern for potential EV buyers who are considering their first electric car. 

Thankfully, cities and states are trying to address this issue by investing in more chargers. America’s electric vehicle charging infrastructure grew by 23.9 percent over the past 12 months, with the total number of Level 2 (240V) and Level 3/Fast Chargers (480V+) rising from 146,337 to 181,270. The number of residents per charger improved by 18.9 percent, dropping from 2,277 residents for each charger a year ago to 1,848 residents per charger today. 

U.S. EV Charger Growth: 2022 - 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Year Residents per Charger Total Chargers
2022 2,277 146,337
2023 1,848 181,270
Year-over-Year Improvement 18.9% 23.9%
iSeeCars analyzed the number of Level 2 and Level 3/DC Fast Chargers from data published by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center to determine how U.S. EV charging infrastructure changed from 2022 to 2023. The analysis also ranked cities and states based on the availability of their EV charging infrastructure, as well as their improvement over the last year.

Nationally, Level 2 chargers grew by 20.6 percent last year, while Level 3 chargers grew by almost twice as much, at 37.5 percent. “This growth in Level 3 chargers is encouraging because the increasing size of newer electric vehicle battery packs magnifies the need for more Fast Chargers to effectively serve the drivers of those vehicles,” said Karl Brauer, iSeeCars executive analyst.

U.S. EV Charger Growth by Charger Type: 2022 - 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Year Level 2 Chargers Level 3/DC Fast Chargers
Residents per Charger Total Chargers Residents per Charger Total Chargers
2022 2,826 117,949 11,740 28,388
2023 2,355 142,241 8,581 39,029
Year-over-Year Improvement 16.7% 20.6% 26.9% 37.5%
The expansion of America’s charging infrastructure continues at a healthy pace, though this year’s 23.9 percent growth rate is less than half the 52.1 percent growth rate seen between 2020 and 2021.

Which cities have the most and least EV chargers?

When ranked by their total number of EV chargers, Los Angeles leads the way with over 21,000 chargers. San Francisco comes in second at nearly 16,000 chargers, followed by a big drop to New York City at 8,903 chargers and Boston at 6,516 chargers. 

The weakest EV charging network among the 50 largest metro areas belongs to Louisville with only 412 chargers, followed by Birmingham at 428 and Milwaukee at 455.

Metro Areas With the Most and Fewest EV Chargers: 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most Chargers Fewest Chargers
Metro Area Total Chargers Metro Area Total Chargers
1 Los Angeles, CA 21,537 Louisville, KY 412
2 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA 15,874 Birmingham, AL 428
3 New York, NY 8,903 Milwaukee, WI 455
4 Boston, MA-Manchester, NH 6,516 Greensboro-Winston Salem, NC 509
5 Washington, DC (Hagerstown, MD) 6,234 Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News,VA 646
6 Denver, CO 5,094 San Antonio, TX 662
7 Seattle-Tacoma, WA 4,941 Harrisburg-Lancaster-York, PA 680
8 San Diego, CA 4,244 Grand Rapids-Kalamazoo, MI 681
9 Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto, CA 4,130 Oklahoma City, OK 682
10 Atlanta, GA 4,011 Albuquerque-Santa Fe, NM 701

What are the most and least EV-friendly cities?

“When ranked by the ratio of residents to EV chargers, California remains the best state for driving an electric vehicle, with five of the top 10 most EV-friendly cities located within its borders,” said Brauer. “Southeast and midwest cities, including Milwaukee, Birmingham, Cleveland, and Louisville, are among the least-friendly EV metro areas.” 
Most and Least EV-Friendly Metro Areas: 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most EV-Friendly Least EV-Friendly
Metro Area Residents per Charger Total Chargers Metro Area Residents per Charger Total Chargers
1 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA 412 15,874 Milwaukee, WI 4,230 455
2 San Diego, CA 670 4,244 Birmingham, AL 3,936 428
3 Los Angeles, CA 724 21,537 Cleveland-Akron (Canton), OH 3,906 848
4 Denver, CO 804 5,094 Louisville, KY 3,807 412
5 Boston, MA-Manchester, NH 915 6,516 San Antonio, TX 3,775 662
6 Sacramento-Stockton-Modesto, CA 936 4,130 St. Louis, MO 3,750 730
7 Kansas City, MO 937 2,384 Indianapolis, IN 3,652 729
8 Baltimore, MD 953 2,742 Greensboro-Winston Salem, NC 3,157 509
9 Fresno-Visalia, CA 958 1,809 Chicago, IL 2,865 2,893
10 Seattle-Tacoma, WA 984 4,941 Greenville-Spartanburg, SC 2,792 753
National 1,848 181,270

Which cities grew their EV infrastructure the most in 2023?

“It’s worth noting that several of the least-friendly EV cities saw some of the highest growth rates in EV infrastructure last year,” said Brauer. “Birmingham, Cleveland, San Antonio, St. Louis, and Indianapolis may rank poorly in the number of residents per EV charger, but they are also among the top 10 cities growing their charging infrastructure the fastest. At the same time, cities like San Francisco and Los Angeles rank well for residents per charger but were in the top 10 for least improved cities last year.”
Most and Least Improved Metro Areas for EV Infrastructure: 2022 - 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most Improved Least Improved
Metro Area % Improvement Residents per Charger 2023 Residents per Charger 2022 Metro Area % Improvement Residents per Charger 2023 Residents per Charger 2022
1 Hartford & New Haven, CT 33.6% 1,272 1,916 Oklahoma City, OK 9.8% 2,491 2,763
2 Indianapolis, IN 32.8% 3,652 5,433 San Francisco-Oakland-San Jose, CA 11.2% 412 464
3 Charlotte, NC 32.7% 2,055 3,055 Grand Rapids-Kalamazoo, MI 11.3% 2,651 2,989
4 St. Louis, MO 31.9% 3,750 5,508 Kansas City, MO 12.0% 937 1,065
5 San Antonio, TX 31.6% 3,775 5,517 Fresno-Visalia, CA 13.8% 958 1,111
6 Houston, TX 31.5% 2,717 3,967 Miami-Ft. Lauderdale, FL 14.4% 1,303 1,522
7 Birmingham, AL 31.1% 3,936 5,711 Los Angeles, CA 14.6% 724 848
8 Cleveland-Akron (Canton), OH 29.8% 3,906 5,567 Salt Lake City, UT 14.9% 1,233 1,449
9 Raleigh-Durham (Fayetteville), NC 28.0% 1,741 2,418 Norfolk-Portsmouth-Newport News,VA 15.5% 2,639 3,122
10 Pittsburgh, PA 27.8% 2,277 3,153 West Palm Beach-Ft. Pierce, FL 15.7% 1,620 1,921
National 18.9% 1,848 2,277

Which states have the most and least EV chargers?

California easily ranks first in total EV infrastructure, with over 51,000 chargers. New York comes in a distant second with 11,951 chargers, followed by Florida with 9,776 and Texas with 9,060. Alaska has the fewest chargers, with 123, followed by North Dakota with 208, South Dakota with 237, and Wyoming with 253. 
States With the Most and Fewest EV Chargers: 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most Chargers Fewest Chargers
State Total Chargers State Total Chargers
1 California 51,490 Alaska 123
2 New York 11,951 North Dakota 208
3 Florida 9,776 South Dakota 237
4 Texas 9,060 Wyoming 253
5 Massachusetts 7,223 Montana 352
6 Washington 6,008 Mississippi 419
7 Colorado 5,599 West Virginia 421
8 Maryland 5,207 Idaho 514
9 Georgia 5,085 Delaware 542
10 Virginia 4,550 Nebraska 572

What are the most and least EV-friendly states?

“California ranks well in total electric vehicle chargers, but it’s outranked by Vermont in residents per EV charger,” said Brauer. “Massachusetts, Colorado, and Maryland round out the top 5 states for electric vehicle chargers per resident, while Mississippi, Louisiana, Alaska, Kentucky, and Alabama are the least EV-friendly states.” 
Most and Least EV-Friendly States: 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most EV-Friendly Least EV-Friendly
State Residents per Charger Total Chargers State Residents per Charger Total Chargers
1 Vermont 695 931 Mississippi 7,016 419
2 California 757 51,490 Louisiana 6,515 702
3 Massachusetts 969 7,223 Alaska 5,963 123
4 Colorado 1,050 5,599 Kentucky 5,520 820
5 Maryland 1,187 5,207 Alabama 4,674 1,093
6 Oregon 1,295 3,268 Indiana 4,404 1,558
7 Washington 1,300 6,008 West Virginia 4,204 421
8 Maine 1,313 1,063 Wisconsin 4,060 1,456
9 Rhode Island 1,427 768 South Dakota 3,879 237
10 Connecticut 1,475 2,452 Idaho 3,822 514
National 1,848 181,270

Which states grew their EV infrastructure the most in 2023?

“Connecticut grew its EV infrastructure the fastest in 2023, with Louisiana, Delaware, Indiana, and North Carolina all improving their residents-per-charger ratio by at least 26 percent,” said Brauer. “Alaska put very little effort into EV infrastructure, growing its residents-per-charger metric by a paltry 1.6 percent. Hawaii, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Oklahoma had modest infrastructure improvement, with 10 percent or less improvement in residents per EV charger.”
Most and Least Improved States for EV Infrastructure: 2022 - 2023 – iSeeCars Study
Rank Most Improved Least Improved
State % Improvement Residents per Charger 2023 Residents per Charger 2022 State % Improvement Residents per Charger 2023 Residents per Charger 2022
1 Connecticut 33.6% 1,475 2,221 Alaska 1.6% 5,963 6,060
2 Louisiana 31.1% 6,515 9,460 Hawaii 7.7% 1,595 1,728
3 Delaware 28.3% 1,904 2,655 Vermont 9.4% 695 768
4 Indiana 28.1% 4,404 6,128 Rhode Island 9.7% 1,427 1,581
5 North Carolina 26.8% 2,490 3,403 Oklahoma 10.7% 2,900 3,247
6 Arkansas 26.3% 3,692 5,011 Utah 14.2% 1,499 1,747
7 Ohio 25.9% 3,175 4,282 Kansas 14.2% 2,368 2,760
8 Montana 25.8% 3,218 4,335 California 14.2% 757 882
9 New Mexico 25.7% 2,974 4,003 West Virginia 15.4% 4,204 4,969
10 New Jersey 25.7% 2,522 3,393 New York 16.9% 1,638 1,971
National 18.9% 1,848 2,277
“The good news for EV fans is that most cities and states continue to invest in their electric vehicle charging networks,” said Brauer. “Even more encouraging is that several of the weakest cities and states for EV charging are also growing their infrastructure the fastest. If this trend continues we should see more consistent charging options for EV owners, regardless of where they live or how far they travel in their electric vehicles.”  

 

 

Methodology

iSeeCars analyzed data from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Alternative Fuels Data Center through 2023 as of February 18, 2024. The number of Level 2 EVSE and Level 3/DC Fast EVSE ports was aggregated nationally, by metro area, and by state. The number of chargers was normalized by population counts from the U.S. Census Bureau and expressed as the number of residents per charger. For metro areas, the latest population data available from 2022 was used for both 2022 and 2023 charger counts; for state and national data, population data for 2022 and 2023 were used for their respective charger counts.

 

About iSeeCars.com

iSeeCars.com is a data-driven car search and research company that helps shoppers find the best car deals by providing key insights and valuable resources, including the iSeeCars VIN Check report and Best Cars Rankings. iSeeCars has saved users over $410 million so far by applying big data analytics powered by over 25 billion (and growing) data points and using proprietary algorithms to objectively analyze, score and rank millions of new cars and used cars.